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Ke kaʻina hana hou o Metal | Hoʻohou 2021

He mea hana e wehewehe ai i ka hopena o ka hopena kemika

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ikaika ʻawelike nawaliwali
Li K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Co2+ Ni Sn Pb Fe3+/ Fe H Cu Fe3+/ Fe2+ Hg Ag Hg2+ Pt Au


Ke hele nei mai lalo a luna o ka pākaukau nā metala

  • Hoʻonui i ka reactivity
  • Lose electrons (oxidize) ʻoi aku ka mākaukau e hana i nā ioni maikaʻi
  • Hōʻino a haumia hou aku paha
  • Koi aku i ka ikehu (a me nā ʻano hana like ʻole) e hoʻokaʻawale ʻia mai kā lākou mau pūhui
  • E lilo i ikaika e hōʻemi ai i nā ʻākena (nā mea hāʻawi uila).

Ka hana me ka wai a me nā waikawa

ʻO nā metala e hana hou ʻia, e like me ka sodium, e hana me ka wai anuanu e hana i ka hydrogen a me ka metala hydroxide:

2Na + 2H2O => 2NaOH + H2

ʻO nā metala i waenakonu o ka moʻo reactivity, e like me ka hao, e hana me nā waikawa e like me ka sulfuric acid (akā ʻaʻole ka wai ma nā mahana maʻamau) e hāʻawi i ka hydrogen a me ka paʻakai metala, e like me ka hao (II) sulfate:

Fe + H2SO4 => FeSO4 + H2

ʻO nā hopena hoʻoneʻe hoʻokahi

ʻO kahi kui hao i loko o kahi keleawe keleawe sulphate hiki ke hoʻololi koke i ke kala ke uhi ʻia ke keleawe metala me ka hao (II) sulphate.

Fe + CuSO4 => Cu + FeSO4

ʻO ka maʻamau, ʻo kekahi o nā metala i ʻoi iki ka liʻiliʻi i ka moʻo reactivity hiki ke pani ʻia e ka mea hao: ʻo nā metala kiʻekiʻe e hoʻoliʻiliʻi i nā ion hao liʻiliʻi. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia no ka hopena thermite no ka hana ʻana i nā mea hao hao liʻiliʻi a no ka hoʻomākaukau ʻana o ka titanium e ke kaʻina hana kroll (Ti like ka pae like me Al i nā kaʻina reactivity). ʻO kahi laʻana, hoʻoliʻiliʻi ka hao (III) oxide i hao a hoʻohuli ʻia ka oxide alumini i kēia kaʻina hana.

2Al + Fe2O3 -> 2Fe + Al2O3

Pēlā nō, hiki ke hoʻokō ʻia ka wehe ʻana o ka titanium mai tetrachloride me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka magnesium, a ʻo ka hopena ke ʻano he magnesium chloride.

2Mg + TiCl4 => Ti + 2MgCl2

Eia nō naʻe nā mea ʻē aʻe i komo i ka pāʻani e like me ka hiki ke hoʻomākaukau ʻia ka potassium metala ma ka hōʻemi ʻana i ka sodium potassium chloride a hiki i 850 ° C. ʻOiai ʻoi loa ka sodium ma ke kaʻina reactivity ma mua o ka potassium, hiki ke hoʻomau i ka hopena ma muli o ka maʻalahi o ka potassium a hoʻoliʻiliʻi ka hui.

Na + KCl => K + NaCl

ʻO kā mākou mea kākoʻo

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ʻAʻole wau makemake e kākoʻo i ka pūnaewele (kokoke) - :(